DIPLOMA – Duration: 6-12 months ( 1-2 Semesters)


STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                             

This Program provides the foundation for a solid, reliable career, as well as being the springboard to many HR, supervisory, managerial, event management and administrative positions - the variety of organisations needing efficient and competent personnel to fill all of these types of post is huge.


  • The types and roles of the PA/Secretary; personal attributes and skills, work relationships, adapting to change.
  • The office environment: layout, design, environmental factors, furniture and furnishings, equipment and machinery, their functions; health and safety concerns.
  • The world of commerce; public, private, types of enterprises.
  • Business letters and their preparation; desktop publishing.
  • Communications including memos, emails, forms, reports and other business documents.
  • Filing systems, data and information.
  • The uses and control of office machines
  • Computer systems: data, databases, hardware, software, data security.
  • Incoming mail: sorting, opening, distributing; dictation, checking typed and word processed work.
  • Outgoing mail, despatching mail, options, postage, posting options and machinery.
  • Reception work, visitors, appointments, deliveries, arranging meetings, representing the organisation.
  • Meetings: arrangements, notices, agendas, taking minutes, preparing minutes.
  • Making travel arrangements; the appointments diary.
  • Conferences, managing events, logistics, travel.
  • Effective communication: oral, visual, written, electronic.
  • Principles of bookkeeping, the ledger, sales documents, petty cash, banking, invoices and receipts, checking and passing bills for payment, issuing cheques, records.
  • Wages and remuneration.
  • Advertising for and recruiting office personnel: job analysis, job descriptions, interviewing, selection tests, induction, training, supervising, controlling, counselling.
  • The functions and principles of management; technical and managerial aspects.
  • Setting good examples, attitudes. Preparing for promotion.

STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                              

This is the Program which provides the skills and framework needed to help junior and/or middle managers advance to become highly effective, respected higher-level managers, administrators, leaders and supervisors; it is a gateway to showing the ability to take on greater responsibility and control.


·         The evolution of management theory, the classical and early theorists, modern developments.

·         Fayol: authority, responsibility, discipline, command.

·         Weber: organization, authority, leadership, bureaucracy.

·         Taylor: scientific management, method study, time & motion study, O&M study.

·         Mayo: human relations theory.

·         Organisational theory: objectives, categories, ownership, environmental factors and interaction.

·         Systems theory, open and closed systems, standards, feedback and control.

·         Coordination, cooperation, structure, control.

·         Organisational structures, spans of control; structure, growth and development.

·         Organization charts, systems diagrams.

·         Duties and responsibilities of executives, effective delegation and responsibility for actions.

·         Motivational theory, motivational factors; human relations, social psychology, self-realisation theory.

·         Argyis: Immaturity-Maturity Theory.

·         Maslow: Hierarchy of Human Needs.

·         McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y.

·         Likert: management styles.

·         Herzberg: Motivation-Hygiene Theory.

·         Vroom: expectancy theory.

·         Handy: Motivational Calculus; intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

·         Leadership theory: types of leader, leadership traits.

·         Leadership style, contingency leadership; managerial grids.

·         Adair: functional leadership; Fielder: relative favourability. 

·         Building workgroups, groups and group behaviour, norms, cohesiveness.

·         Effective and ineffective groups, teams and team-building, team roles.

·         Strategic management; Fayol: elements of management.

·         Chandler, Andrews: corporate and business strategy.

·         Ansoff: product-market growth strategy; the BCG matrix.

·         Porter’s competitive forces; SWOT analysis, barriers to entry, industrial competitiveness.

·         Corporate objectives, policies, business ethics, business social responsibility

·         Business Environment: macro and micro environment, PEST analysis.

·         Managing change, the dimensions of change, resistance to change, the change culture.

·         Moss Kanter, learning organizations, entrepreneurship, innovation, and managing change.

·         Mission, vision, shareholder and stakeholder values, standards and behaviour, mission statements.

·         Communications theory and models; cognitive, congruency and attitude theories.

·         Business ethics, globalization, compliance, codes of conduct, ethical investment, cases.


STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                               

This Program is suitable not only for people seeking managerial posts in business, but also for people who intend to establish and manage their own businesses in the future, and for those already running businesses or departments who need expert guidance and knowledge to ensure that is done profitably and successfully.


·         Business objectives, planning and forecasting in business, the business plan; competition, location, knowledge, skills, market potential.

·         The business environment: public, private and trading enterprises; sole-proprietors, partnership firms, limited liability companies, the board of directors.

·         The importance of working capital, its components and management; cash and funds flow.

·         Starting or taking over a business - factors to investigate and consider, research, competition, market potential, location factors, goodwill.

·         Business organisation, structure, expansion, delegation, re-organising.

·         Communications: internal and external, vertical and horizontal, channels, effect on employees, managers and customers.

·         Budgeting, budgetary control, limiting factors; sales, production and other sub-budgets, the master budget.

·         Pricing policy and factors effecting prices set.

·         Credit: types and purposes, credit limits, credit control, bad debts; discounts: trade, quantity, others.

·         Management of personnel: recruitment, job analysis, advertising, selecting, inducting, training, controlling, remunerating.

·         Motivation, human resources, discipline, counselling, resignations, retirements.

·         Stock control, the stores department, costs in maintaining stocks, stock levels, stock records, stock-taking.

·         Purchasing, buying, choosing suppliers, ordering, negotiating.

·         Selling, sales and marketing management, market research, advertising, publicity and sales promotion, pricing policy.

·         Office management, delegation of responsibility; structure, charts; control and standards; communication.

·         Production management: market, technology and manpower factors; production methods, factories, machinery and equipment; costing, standard costs, variance.

·         Financial accounting and records, bookkeeping, manufacturing and trading and profit & loss accounts, the balance sheet, ratios and analysis.

·         Office organisation and control, layout, data, records, the office environment; health and safety in the workplace, O & M Studies.

·         Computer programs and systems, IT, security, office machinery and equipment, word processing.


STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                                

Good communications is essential in every type of job - administrative, managerial, personnel, HR and any other - and so this Program is important to anybody who works with others or needs to communicate with others - internal or external to the organisation.  The Program therefore can lead to a wide and enjoyable range of possible careers and positions.


·         Lines of communication and communications channels: oral, written, visual, electronic, others.

·         Removing barriers and ensuring two-way communications flows, the importance of feedback.

·         The danger of the grapevine; creating trust, fostering teamwork.

·         Telecommunications, computer-mediated and digital communication, viruses and other danger.

·         Email management, broadband, local area networks (LANs), remote access.

·         Technological developments, websites.

·         Forms and business documents, manual and computerized, their design, features and purposes.

·         Business letters and their purposes; improving communication content, composition and style.

·         English language, good English for communication, lay out, composition, grammar, language, style.

·         Care to take over wording, confusions which can occur.

·         The use of abbreviations and possible problems.

·         Communications concerning employment; regarding job vacancies, applications, employee specifications, advertisements.

·         Communications concerning promotion, employee specifications, staff matters and relationships.

·         The use and impact of charts and graphs.

·         Communications relating to sales; letters, literature: catalogues, pamphlets, follow-ups, circulars, announcements.

·         Communications relating to advertisements; gaining attention.

·         Enquiries, quotations, estimates, orders, payments.

·         The design of forms.

·         Financial business documents: invoices, credit notes, features and accuracy.

·         Financial documents produced manually and by computer.

·         Financial terms and expressions.

·         Communications between employees, induction, counselling, others.

·         Meetings: formal and informal, preparing notices, agendas, minutes; employment interviews.

·         Letters of complaint, from customers or clients, and to suppliers, warnings; psychology.

·         Dictating, drafting, checking, preparing, packing and despatching letters; standard communications.

·         Records and their importance, data management, references.

·         Centralized and decentralized filing, filing equipment, filing schemes.

·         Computer systems, information, data processing and security, copies and back-ups.

·         Word processing, desk top processing.


STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                               

This Program covers a wide range of management, administration and supervisory matters, as well as focusing on a wide number of practical office issues and management practice.  The knowledge and understanding from this Program allows access to higher studies in a wide range of managerial and administrative areas.

The knowledge and understanding provided by this Program is ideal for anybody working in, or looking for promotion to, higher levels in an office or work environment.  It covers the knowledge which potential and current employers are seeking in those who are needed to manage an office or department, and for advancement within the organisation.


·         The functions of the office; range of activities.

·         Duties and responsibilities of managers/administrators.

·         Organisational structures, organisation charts, technical/human management.

·         Organisation, and department objectives and policies.

·         Office location, centralized and decentralized offices.

·         Features and issues regarding layout and design of offices and workspaces.

·         Environmental features of offices: heating/cooling, lighting, ventilation, cloakrooms.

·         Office furniture, furnishings, decor.

·         Accident prevention, noise reduction, safety measures and precautions.

·         Personnel and managerial duties regarding health and safety.

·         Office machines and equipment, copiers.

·         Computer and IT systems, networks, databases, email, security and data protection.

·         Word processing, desk top publishing, filing systems.

·         Written/printed communications, business letters, memoranda, reports, documents.

·         The design of written communications; codes: their features and key data.

·         Staffing and employment: recruiting, job analysis, employee specifications, interviewing, inducting.

·         Training, motivating, supervising, controlling, grading, ranking, remunerating, counselling.

·         Trade unions and industrial relations, aims and purposes.

·         Organisation and management (O & M) studies.

·         Communication, telecommunications, incoming and outgoing mail, despatches.

·         Managing meetings, producing agendas, taking and distributing minutes, managing conferences.

·         The office reception, the roles and importance of receptionists.

·         Financial matters, the principles of accounting.

·         Cashiering, overseeing bank accounts, budgets and budgetary control.

·         Employee development, promotion and development.


STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                               

This Program is mainly designed for those looking to enter, or who are already involved in, the insurance field, and to provide them with knowledge and understanding in order to become effective insurance personnel and insurance sectional, departmental or business managers.  However, any manager, executive or business person also needs an understanding of the principles, benefits and operations of insurance, so having such knowledge will boost career prospects and ensure greater respect.


·         The nature and purpose of insurance, the types and natures of risks.

·         Insurance and methods of reducing the potential damaging effects of risks.

·         Insurance and the law; insurance contracts and their components, the benefits of insurance.

·         The various types and classes of insurance available, and their features.

·         The concepts, meaning and roles of insurable interest, utmost good faith and material facts.

·         Voidable contracts - what they are and how they arise.

·         Indemnity and insurance objectives: the purpose of indemnity, form and value of indemnity.

·         The meaning and relevance of subrogation, contribution, proximate cause, physical and moral hazard.

·         Matters concerning actual or potential fraud, the role of warranties.

·         Regulation of insurance businesses.

·         Insurance proposal forms, their layout, cover notes, insurance certificates, policy documents.

·         Premium rating, renewals, claims procedures, total and partial losses, average.

·         Transportation insurance: marine; hull, cargo, voyage; aviation, transit, motor.

·         Liability, cover offered in different personal and commercial policies; comprehensive and personal.

·         No-claims bonus, excess in policies.

·         Personal and commercial property, the scope of cover; accident, pecuniary and liability insurances.

·         Personal insurance: accident, sickness, health, medical and life insurances, groups.

·         Pensions and annuities.

·         The insurance market: buyers and sellers, types of insurers, intermediaries, Lloyd’s, reinsurers.

·         Organisation and operation of insurance companies, branches, directors, reserves, funds, specialists.


STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                               

This Program is ideal for anyone wishing to learn how to manage projects and who needs to use and implement project management skills, methods and tools. It is perfect for those aiming to become project managers, those looking for project management careers, those who are already involved in managing projects of any type and those who wish to start up their own project management businesses.

The Program is also of great assistance to all employees, managers and personnel of every kind because project management skills can also ‘translate’ into all types of everyday and specialist work in all types of organizations. The Program gives a comprehensive introduction to project leadership and management with many practical examples.


·         Module 1 Summary: Principles & Practice of Project Management

·         Module 2 Summary: Project Personnel and Teams

·         Module 3 Summary: Project Planning and Organisation

·         Module 4 Summary: Project Cost Estimating and Budgeting

·         Module 5 Summary: The Project Schedule and Project Tools

·         Module 6 Summary: Project Procurement & Purchasing

·         Module 7 Summary: Project Communication Management

·         Module 8 Summary: Project Implementation and Execution

·         Module 9 Summary: Project Monitoring and Control

·         Module 10 Summary: Project Closure - the Final Phase

·         Module 11 Summary: Project Logistics, Development Projects

·         Module 12 Summary: Project Concepts, Outsourcing, Establishing a Project Business



STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                               

The Program is an ideal platform for further studies human resource and personnel management, and for general management, organisation and administration of all types.

Anyone who is looking to work effectively as a good manager, foreman, supervisor or administrator - in fact anyone dealing with people, colleagues or staff - will find these skills and this qualification very beneficial to their efficiency and success; they will have the skills and understanding to motivate and guide those around them - and will stand out as somebody worthwhile of praise and promotion, and who has ambition and a desire to succeed.

 SUMMARY OF MAJOR TOPICS COVERED INCLUDE:                                                                                 

·         The meaning and management of human and material resources, management activity.

·         The relationship between employers and employees, the link between work and pay.

·         Supervising the workforce, training people, setting and communication organisational goals.

·         Teamwork, supervising, leading, planning, forecasting and organising.

·         Motivation and setting standards, ensuring good performance.

·         Types of management responsibility - to the organisation and for subordinates.

·         The different types of companies and businesses.

·         The meaning of authority, the delegation process, supervising and monitoring performance.

·         Decision-making by managers and staff.

·         Business organisation, the division and specialization of labour, forming workgroups.

·         Work structures; line, function and staff organisations; creating and updating company charts.

·         Communication: two-way, the effects on motivation and benefits of good communication.

·         Communication lines and channels; horizontal and vertical, oral, written, unspoken.

·         HR activity, internal and external recruitment; job analysis, advertising jobs.

·         Dealing with job applications, the selection and appointment process.

·         Supervising new employees and introducing them to the workplace.

·         Induction, job training, employee development.

·         Managing the work environment.

·         Employee counselling, disciplinary action, equal opportunity policy, matters regarding promotion.

·         Trade unions and staff associations.

·         Carrying out job evaluation, grading and ranking jobs; job design, job rotation, job enlargement.

·         Retaining employees; dealing with labour turnover, resignations, dismissal, redundancy.

·         Accidents and health & safety at work.


STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                               

Leadership, teamwork and team building is needed to a greater or lesser degree in every aspect of life and work, and this Program and equips those working in, or aiming for a career in supervision and management with the knowledge to understand and develop these important aspects of organisational life - and to succeed, and develop in their careers, be noticed and admired by colleagues and employers, to gain promotion and respect.


·         Leadership and team building - their importance and roles.

·         Leadership, work, organisations and human characteristics.

·         Customer service, SMART and C-SMART criteria.

·         Motivating people; the social context and psychology.

·         Describing and examining various motivational theories, the need for achievement.

·         Team and group definitions; values and team behaviour, peoples’ perceptions of teams.

·         Team types and team membership.

·         Synergy, groupthink, group dynamics and norms, peer and hierarchical groups; inertia and friction.

·         Team formation and development; team features, communication and life cycle; team loyalty.

·         Team roles and functions; role theory, team wheels, Belbin’s model.

·         Testing for teams and selecting team members, the need for balance, recruitment.

·         The role of the leader; leadership traits and styles.

·         Leadership theories, the leadership spectrum and matrix, becoming a leader.

·         Power, influence and relationships in organisations; the use and sources of power.

·         Authority, responsibility and accountability.

·         Delegation and empowerment in the workplace.

·         Dealing with conflict; negotiation, learning, adaptation, and behaviour change.

·         Team leadership and culture; cultural development and change, cultural types, culture clashes.

·         Twenty-first century teams and leaders, ICT and technological synergy, virtual teams, boundaries.

·         Theorists: Adair, Belbin, Warren, Blanchard, Covey, Handy, Lewin, Lewis, Morris, Peters, Robbins.



STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                               

This Program is advantageous to any and all managers, business people, administrators and workers in any and all organizations, and will provide the knowledge which is needed for upwards progress; executives and directors will look for staff with proven computer and IT knowledge and understanding to help improve efficiency and make best use of the technology available.  For those working in or wanting to enter the IT field, it provides the ability for advancement because it covers far more than just technology - it provides the foundation to become a manager and to translate the theoretical benefits of computer systems into reality to the benefit of all types of organizations.


·         Computers and technology in business; their roles as aids to management and administration and as a decision-making tool.

·         The functions and duties of management, the technical and human aspects.

·         Human factors in IT and management.

·         Computer technology development and characteristics of computers; mass technology.

·         Advantages and limitations of computers and IT.

·         Digital information, computer hardware, the CPU, interfacing, memory, bootstrapping, storage.

·         Input and output devices.

·         Understanding the technology, how it works.

·         Operating systems, programming tools, computer languages, codes, applications.

·         Information flows, security, location.

·         Understanding digital information, data orthogonality, programming.

·         Hardware systems, software operations.

·         Management information systems, using software: forecasts, modelling, graphs, competitor and market analysis.

·         Understanding and using business intelligence.

·         Computers and communications, communication devices, protocols, networks.

·         The internet - its uses and how it works, IPs, URLs.

·         Practical uses of computer systems: accounting and financial systems, in property, hotels, insurance, retail, production, sales and other businesses and administrative uses.

·         Digital and print media technologies.

·         Traditional word processing and desk-top publishing; publishing software, digital media.

·         Websites and website design and production.

·         Objectives of computerization.

·         Defining, choosing and implementing a computer system; requirements and specifications.

·         Delivering and testing a new computer system.

·         Project management approaches to computer and IT systems, from concept to operation; quality assurance.

·         The efficient running and maintenance of an IT system.

·         Ensuring business continuity, planning for problems and failures.

·         Back-up systems, disaster recovery, dealing with a cyber-attack, physical security.

·         Setting and managing passwords and data access systems.


STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                               

Export activities need to be conducted by trained and knowledgeable personnel and managers, so a person trained in matters of international business and trade can expect to achieve a good job, security and respect. This study and training also provides routes into a wide range of marketing, product development, logistics and many other fields and career areas.


        The reasons for conducting overseas business and trade.

        Defining import and export; the aims and risks.

        International sales; production and make or buy decisions.

        International trade for smaller and medium sized companies; acquisitions and mergers.

        Economic development, international companies and strategy, global markets.

        Marketing: the marketing mix, marketing planning, market segmentation.

        Considerations of product fit, product promotions.

        Strategy: SMART, SWOT.

        Market research, social, political, legal and economic factors; competition analysis.

        Macro factors, communication and cultural factors.

        Barriers to entry, import controls, licenses; quality and safety; packaging and labelling.

        Routes to market; direct and indirect marketing: trading houses, agents, joint ventures, partners, mergers and acquisitions.

        Business finance; fixed and variable costs, economies of scale.

        Budgets, break-even analysis, accounting and financial checks and ratios.

        Export costing, pricing and global sales, incoterms.

        Contracts, the offer, terms and conditions, acceptance, breaches of contracts.

        Transport and logistics: the role of freight forwarders; containerization, insurance, customs brokers.

        Customs documentation and procedures, tariffs and bonded warehousing.

        The bill of lading; types, variations and features.

        Methods of payment, bills of exchange, currency and exchange rates, letters of credit, pricing.

        Awareness of and care against fraud.

        Financing international trade; short, medium, long term options; forfait, factoring, leasing, premiums.

        Suppliers, partners, support organisations, export management companies, chambers of commerce.

        The export marketing plan, format and content, its importance.


STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                                

The Program will be valuable to men and women in - or looking for - a role or career in a wide range of different areas, private or public, governmental or trade and industry, national and international.  International relations is closely linked to development and social and societal issues, so these are careers areas which will benefit as well from this Program.


        Principles of IR theory; states, international systems, IGOs, NGOs, MNCs; levels of IR, global geography.

        Realism, idealism, anarchy, sovereignty; balance of power, great & middle powers, hegemony, alliances.

        Foreign policy, rational behaviour, models of decision making, arms control, psychology in foreign policy.

        Liberal institutionalism; integration theory, international regimes, United Nations, the European Union.

        Domestic factors; democracy, peace, bureaucracy, interest groups, the military, industry, public opinion.

        Constructivism and identity, international expectations, law & human rights, war crimes, the world order.

        IR theories: Marxism, Imperialism, Colonialism, dependency; revolution, post-modernism, peace studies.

        Gender theories: importance, types of feminism, gender in war and peace, women in IR, influences.

        Conflict: nationalism, ethnic, religious, economic; territorial; causes of war, terrorism, proliferation.

        Trade theories: mercantilism, liberalism, balance of trade, comparative advantage, protectionism, WTO.

        Globalization: currency, exchange, banks, debt; multinational business; environment, population, disease.

        Development theories: human needs, economic development, capital, trade, technology, foreign aid.




STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                                

The Program prepares men and women for employment and advancement, and to better conduct their current and future roles, in the public or civil service; they may become central or local government public administrators or employees working in departments and agencies at any levels of government. And because much of this understanding and knowledge is applicable to many areas of management and policy the careers available outside of public administration are also opened up.


        The nature and roles of public administration in the world of changing public expectations.

        Public administration in the implementation of government policy and its effect on the daily lives of citizens.

        The institutional setting of public administration.

        Public administration organisational structures; central government.

        The public sector, the environment, “green” policies; gauging their impact and outcomes; implementation of environmental/green policies.

        The civil or public service: public administrators, duties and responsibilities.

        The correct behaviour towards the public.

        Traditional roles of public servants, recent changes, the modern civil or public service.

        Economy, efficiency and equity in public administration.

        Human resource management: recruitment, training, remuneration, supervision and control.

        Promotion - vertical and horizontal - in public administration.

        Integration, continuity and change in public administration.

        Structure and functions of local administration.

        Duties and responsibilities of local administration officials, local government service, bureaucracies.

        Elected and employed officials, central government control.

        Financing the public sector, allocating resources for central and local administration, budgets and budgetary control, financial control, audits.

        Independent public bodies.

        Health and voluntary agencies.



STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                               

This Program is suitable for people seeking general and managerial posts in business, for men and women who wish to manage their own businesses effectively and correctly, and for those who wish to know the principles of commercial law and how to successfully and carefully ensure that business transactions, sales and trade are responsibly conducted.  Knowing the principles of commerce and commercial law, especially regarding liability, tort and contracts, will make you an invaluable asset to your organisation.


        The place of commerce and trade in the modern commercial world.

        How the elements of commerce evolved and developed.

        Modern business, the role of money and banking, transport, hospitality, insurance, law and communication.

        The types of economies in which organisations transact business and operate.

        Sources and categories of law: constitutional, customary, common, statute, case law.

        Criminal and civil law.

        Commercial law, the law of contract: an offer, an acceptance, the financial consideration.

        Terms and conditions of trade; what they are, standards, how they are presented.

        Credit and credit transactions, effects on cash flow and liquidity, risks associated with credit, credit management.

        Transactions and documents used in business - layout, content, interpretation, preparation.

        Types of business: sole-owners, partnerships, limited companies.

        Financing companies; matters relating to ownership, capital, shares, shareholders, share certificates, shareholders’ agreements.

        Legal obligations of company directors, the company secretary duties, annual returns, general meetings.

        Tort liability for defective goods, product liability and the law, the law relating to defective services.

        Employment law, health and safety in the workplace, legal protection of employees against dismissal, redundancy and discrimination.

        The law of agency, the creation of agency, the rights and duties of agents and principals.

        Intellectual property law.

        Transfer of ownership, performance, legal remedies for breach of contract and of confidence.




STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                                

This Program covers the essentials of English and focuses on improvement of reading, writing and understanding.  The Program will increase technical and practical proficiency, and starts by explaining the different types of English words, the importance of sentences and paragraphs,  what they do and how they should be put together, and teaches how to improve English usage, knowledge and communication.  The Program deals with what needs to be known for success in Examinations, and for progress to more complex and professional English studies.


        English words, the Alphabet, capital and small letters, vowels, consonants, syllables; singular, plural.

        Parts of speech: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, prepositions, verbs, adverbs, conjunctions; gender.

        Sentences: subjects, objects, word order, compound sentences.

        Statements, questions, commands.

        Verbs, finite forms, action.

        Verb tenses - present, future, past; simple, continuous, perfect; conjugation.

        Pronouns: why and when used; objects, subjects; potential errors; position and meaning in sentences.

        Adjectives: uses and types, articles, colours, numbers.

        Adverbs: uses, position, qualifying words.

        Punctuating sentences: full stops, commas, colons; question, exclamation, quotation marks; dashes.

        English dictionaries; spelling, accents, meanings; vocabulary; suffixes, prefixes; word confusion.

        Positive and negative sentences and questions; ‘not’ and abbreviations.

        Changing sentence tenses.

        Sentences and paragraphs; passive and active, short and long.

        Dialogue: direct and indirect speech.

        Making written English interesting; writing stories and about events.

        Comprehension, understanding written passages of text, the context of written English, answering questions.

        Letter writing: social, business and private letters; their aims, layout, structure, content and features.




STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                               

The design of the Program aims to meet the needs of new teachers and veteran teachers and educators, and those studying education. It is a practical guide to managing students in the classroom, with many proven strategies to deal with challenges that teachers may face.  The underlying are principles that successful classroom management is based on putting children and students needs at the heart of the teaching process and that a classroom can be managed to achieve high results.  The Program is valuable and important not only to actual teachers, but to departmental managers, heads and the management team of schools and educational organisations.


        Proactive classroom management - its meaning and effect on achievement.

        Proactive teachers, positive teacher attitudes.

        The purpose of education; management and achievement in teaching, classrooms and schools.

        School discipline and the behaviour of students; classroom structure, instruction approach.

        Theories and models in teaching; applying concepts, teachers’ self-reflection and review.

        Building a classroom community: the benefits in terms of success, trust, and the effects on student behaviour.

        Creating a sense of belonging for students.

        Effective empowerment of students and improvement in results and behaviour.

        The elements and planning involved in creating a proactive classroom.

        Developing positive student-teacher relationships; becoming a good teacher.

        Emotional empathy and understanding students’ communities and situations.

        The issues of managing and dealing with stereotypes; aiming for gender equity and avoiding bias.

        Diversity in the classroom and cultural differences.

        Preventing disruption in learning environments.

        Managing groups, maintaining focus, achieving group cohesion.

        Encouraging peer relationships and support networks for students.

        Enhancing student motivation; overcoming the failure syndrome; increasing optimism and effort.

        Motivation theories in educational situations, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.

        Instructing classes; promoting engaged learning.

        Organising teaching.

        Differentiation in the classroom for learners, learning and development.

        Students with learning problems, dealing with them; promoting and enhancing social skills.

        Positive behavioural support; proactive behavioural intervention strategies.

        Analysing and counteracting misbehaviour; problem behaviour and strategies to overcome it.

        Discipline with dignity; the roles, advantages and disadvantages of sanctions and punishment.

        Behaviour modification and accepted standards of behaviour.

        The conflict cycle, reinforcement of good behaviour and positive outcomes.

        Students with emotional problems; types of behaviour arising.

        Students with disabilities; model programs.

        Self-control for teachers and educators.

        Health and safety in schools; hazards and dangers in schools and educational establishments.

        Safety and risk management, the responsibilities of educators and supervisors.


STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                                The ability to write, speak and communicate in good English - professionally - is a huge advantage when aiming to gain good employment, gain the confidence of employers and customers, and in seeking promotion and high-level posts.  Without a good level of English people are often considered to be poorly educated or to lack managerial/administrative, secretarial or personnel skills.  Not only is English an international language, but it is frequently the medium of communication for those who have different ‘first languages’, so good English is essential.  This is an excellent and useful Program and builds upon the College’s Essential Everyday English Program, and takes English skills to a professional level of ability.

English at this level is often needed for admission to higher-level studies internationally, in all areas of study and education.


        Punctuation marks and their purpose to make writing clear and easy to understand.

        Improving vocabulary and knowledge of English words; prefixes and suffixes.

        Spellings and the meanings of English words, dictionaries.

        The various types of punctuation and their uses in theory and practice.

        Forming complete and sensible sentences: sentence parts: subjects, predicates, word order.

        Building logical and well-ordered paragraphs.

        Positive and negative statements, questions and commands. 1st, 2nd, 3rd person; verb tenses.

        Using names and numbers; their features and purposes. Complements, transitive verbs.

        The parts of speech: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, conjunctions and prepositions.

        More on words and speech: gender, subjective and objective words and phrases, articles.

        Making writing varied and interesting, creating descriptions, the context of words and passages.

        Avoiding problems with commonly confused English words.

        Using an English-English dictionary to increase understanding and variety.

        Distinguishing between words.

        Developing a good writing style; the meanings of uses of similes and metaphors.

        Comprehension, reading, understanding and interpreting, and responding sensibly.

        Writing social and private letters: preparing enquiries and complaints, writing replies.

        Written and spoken English compared; direct and indirect speech and writing.

        Introduction to business letter writing: planning, drafting, features, layouts, objectives, tones, style, references, post scripts; passages, paragraphs, clarity.


STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                                The course is ideal for bookkeepers, accountants, financial officers and business people who are already employed in accounting and finance jobs, and also for men and women looking to enter this important career area.  It is also a course for men and women wishing to gain promotion, to become accounting managers, or simply looking to increase managerial ability and skills in accounting and finance.

All managers, administrators, entrepreneurs, business people and executives benefit greatly from a good understanding of the accounting and finance function; it is a “must have” qualification for people looking to advance in this field, or to middle and higher level business or management posts.   The range of career opportunities for skilled and qualified financial and accounts personnel is huge, whether in general accounting and finance fields or in more specialist areas.


        Module 1 - The Need for Complete and Accurate Accounting Information

        Module 2 - Capital and Business Finance

        Module 3 - Principles of Bookkeeping and Books of Account

        Module 4 - Final Accounts (1)   

        Module 5 - Final Accounts (2)

        Module 6 - Principles of Costing

        Module 7 - Planning and Forecasting, Budgets and Budgeting

        Module 8 - Stock and Inventory Control

        Module 9 - Credit, Credit Control, Discounts

        Module 10 - Partnership Accounts, Departmental and Branch Accounts, Hire Purchase

        Module 11 - Interpretation of Final Accounts, Pricing Policy, Auditors and Auditing

        12 - Computerized Accounting Systems and ‘Packages’ 



STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                                This course will help you become a well-trained and competent bookkeeping and accounting practitioner, with the skill and ability to understand, operate and run books of account - the bookkeeping and accounts system of a small business, or section or department of a larger organisation - which will ensure you are a person who is always in demand.  This Program is ideal for those who have a knowledge of bookkeeping or some practical experience, for those already employed in accounting or auditing departments, offices and firms, and those who are ambitious for promotion to better paid accounts posts.  The Program is also of great value to business people, accounts and administrative staff who need to maintain accurate books of account, and to prepare informative and complete accounting statements, manually or by computer.

Bookkeeping and accounting is an excellent foundation for anybody getting on to the employment ladder; it opens the door to many job opportunities in a huge variety of enterprises, and provides knowledge which is essential for anybody wishing to become a manager, executive or business-owner.  Every successful organisation has at least one person with bookkeeping and accounting knowledge and ability, and larger organisations often employ many hundreds of accounts personnel; whatever the size of the organisation, good bookkeepers are valued and well paid.


        Module 1 - The Ledger: the Main Book of Account                     

        Module 2 - Accounting for Cash

        Module 3 - Original Entries and Subsidiary Books                       

        Module 4 - From Opening Entries to Trial Balance                                        

        Module 5 - Preparing for the Final Accounts

        Module 6 - Manufacturing and Trading Accounts

        Module 7 - Profit & Loss Accounts     

        Module 8 - Balance Sheets            

        Module 9 - Accounting for Goodwill and Discounts  

        Module 10 - Accounting for Credit 

        Module 11 - Basic Cost Accounting; Departmental and Branch Accounts      

        Module 12 - Computers in Bookkeeping and Accounting   


STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                                This course opens up many career possibilities, not limited only to the accounting field.  Qualified, trained cost accountants - like those who study and successfully complete this course - are needed in all sorts of enterprises, including industrial, manufacturing, project management and service-providing companies.

Accounting and financial personnel who already have accounting studies will also greatly benefit from increasing their cost accounting knowledge, as will managers and business people in all types of business environments.


        Cost accounting - its scope and definition.

        Cost accounting techniques and relationship to budgeting.

        Appraisal of benefits and methods of cost accounting.

        Cost accounting terminology; classification of costs, overheads, direct costs, total costs.

        Dealing with cost centres and cost units.

        Cost behaviour in different circumstances, distinguishing differences between types of costs.

        Classes of costs, prediction and analysis of costs, methods and models for handling costs.

        Labour costs, remuneration methods for workers, output, hours, direct and indirect costs.

        Material costs; pricing methods, FIFO, LIFO, AVCO, replacement costs.

        Stock valuation, just-in-time stocks.

        Absorption costing; overheads, rates of absorption, application to cost units and centres.

        Absorption costing for non-manufacturing organisations.

        Activity based costing; overheads, AMT, cost drivers, activities, the business environment.

        Marginal costing, revenue statements, contribution, ratios, breakeven analysis, safety margin.

        Marginal costing short-term decision making, make or buy, single orders, shortages, factors.

        Planning, budgeting; framework, process, control, integration, data, zero-based, activity-based.

        Standard costing and variance analysis, investigation, causes, appraisal.

        Capital investment appraisal; discounted cash flows, ARR, IRR, NPV, payback, risk.




STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                                This Program is ideal for careers in all aspects of credit management, and debt and credit control.  Whether this course is studied for these specific careers, or to open up or secure a career in accounting generally, this course will provide the skills and knowledge needed for success and advancement.  The Program also provides access to further and higher studies in accounting and finance, and possible exemptions from other professional courses and qualifications in accounting.


        The meanings of key terms including: credit, credit policy, credit terms, credit limits, receivables, and more.

        The major forms of credit, and the benefits to manufacturers/producers, vendors and consumers of credit availability.

        Risks in allowing credit to customers.

        The importance of liquidity, the management of liquidity; methods of improving liquidity.

        Responsibilities of the credit control function.

        Internal and external sources of information about customers or clients.

        Financial analysis of customer accounts: liquidity and profitability indicators, financial position, cash flow, working capital.

        Using performance indicators for customers, using a credit scoring system and the shortcomings of credit scoring systems.

        Granting credit and setting up customer accounts; various factors which affect the decision to allow credit.

        Procedures for opening a new credit account.

        Reasons for and processes when refusing to grant credit.

        Changes in credit terms; interest penalties for late payments.

        The different types of discounts and, why they are offered.

        Credit insurance; overseas sales and export credit insurance.

        Customers and contracts; elements of contracts; offer and acceptance.  Breaches of contract.

        Selling and statute law; trade descriptions acts, consumer credit acts.

        Methods of “chasing” and recovering outstanding debts.

        Monitoring and controlling customer accounts; useful techniques.

        Receivables and aged debtor reports.

        Doubtful and bad debts, provisions for doubtful debts.  Writing off bad debts.

        Collecting debts and dealing with insolvency.

        Methods of collecting trade debts. Using third parties for debt collection.

        Taking a customer to court; legal terms, enforcement of judgements.  Insolvency practitioners.

        Overview and review of Credit control policy.


STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                                The Program will benefit anybody who requires knowledge and ability in one or more of the core financial management activities, whether seeking a worthwhile career in the field, or seeking promotion and advancement in finance or accounting areas, or in wider management and administration fields.  The Program will benefit men and women already employed in finance and accounting fields (or hoping to enter it) to gain career success and further advancement, and other professionals, entrepreneurs, business owners and managers who need an expert and practical working knowledge of the principles of financial management.  The Program will also provide access to higher studies in finance, accounting, business and management, and similar related subjects.


        The nature and importance of capital investment decisions, and the resources involved.

        Investment appraisal methods: accounting rate of return (ARR), return on capital employed (ROCE), payback period; net present value (NPV).

        Risk in investment appraisal, calculating and using probabilities.

        The impact of interest and inflation, risk premiums; considering the effect on and meaning of wealth.

        Investment in practice and reality, the concept of logical investors.

        The cost of capital; review and control for capital expenditure projects.

        The process of decision making relating to capital management, auditing.

        Short-term finance, gearing, factoring, discounting.

        Sources of short-term finance: internal, external, profits, credit control.

        Long-term finance, the stock exchange, primary and secondary markets, stock listing.

        Shares, share issues, debentures.

        Small business finance, venture capital, funding, business angels, Government roles and support.

        Managing working capital, its definition and elements, the scale of capital.

        Managing stocks, stock ordering systems, MRQ, JIT and inventory control models.

        Budgeting for demand, financial ratios, debtor and credit control.

        The working capital cycle; discounts, collection policies, settlement period.

        Cash management and budgets, the cash cycle.

        Policies for working capital control; balance, banking, overdrafts.



STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                                This Program is a comprehensive introduction to how banks work. It provides a thorough understanding of all types of banking from retail to investment banking, and covers global and central banking. It gives understanding of the wide variety of activities undertaken and services provided by banks, how they operate and are regulated, and explains why banks are so important and how their activities impact on modern life, people, business, government and the economy.     

The Program is ideal for anyone who wants to understand the banking industry, gain a good knowledge of modern banking, and move ahead with a career in banking and the wide and varied positions which can be found in the banking industry.  Whether this Program is studied for a specific career in banking, or to open up or secure a career in the banking and finance industry, it will provide knowledge needed for success and advancement.


        An explanation what banking actually is; a brief history of banking; the relationship of banks with households, businesses and government; banking and the economy.

        An overview of the different aspects and types of banking.

        Retail banking: deposits, lending to people and businesses, risk assessment checklist for lending and loans.

        Retail banks: payments and transferring money, clearing systems, other retail bank services.

        Corporate banking: lending, credit and credit analysis, project finance, bankers acceptances.

        Corporate banking, interest rates and LIBOR; international trade, bills of exchange; other corporate banking activities and services.

        How a bank operates: capital, liquidity and liquidity ratios, reserves, clearing systems, stockbroking.

        Asset management and liability management, loan policy, the return on capital ratio, bank income.

        Bank financial statements: balance sheets, income statements, bank performance ratios.

        Investment banking: services provided to companies and governments; global investment banks, involvement in mergers, acquisitions and restructuring.

        Investment banking and market trading, brokers, equities, derivatives, investment advice, funds, investment vehicles

        Mutuals and finance houses; credit unions, deposit-taking institutions, factoring, leasing, insurance.

        International banking; banking in the UK, Europe, the Americas, Asia, Australasia, Middle East, Africa.

        Debt markets: treasury bills, government and corporate bonds, currency; prices, returns and yields.

        Futures markets, Swaps markets, Options markets, Foreign Exchange markets and trading; derivatives, speculators.

        Central banking, functions of central banks, BASEL, insurance, compliance, disclosure.

        Monetary policy, supply, demand, discount rates, the economy, quantitative easing, money laundering.

        The regulation of banks; bank supervision and inspection; what is regulated and why, regulation systems.


STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                                This Program teaches about tangible and intangible assets, investments, and the work of asset, investment and fund managers. It explains how to forecast and understand market trends, analyse markets, plan to maximize investment returns, and how to manage equity, bond and other assets and portfolios. It also explains how to develop strong market and investment strategies.

The course is ideal for investors, brokers, analysts and others involved in asset management and portfolio management, and for those who need to explain to customers how the markets and investment strategies work.  It relates theory to actual practical work, including strategy, management, dealing and office work relating to asset management.


        Fixed assets as working assets; current, circulating and floating assets, the circulation of current assets.

        Liquid assets, liquidity management, solvency, the working capital cycle; trade debtors, credit control.

        Intangible assets: intellectual property, goodwill, copyrights, patents. Financial instruments: equity, debt.

        Securities; investments: deposits, gilt-edged securities, stocks and shares, dividends, returns.

        Physical asset management: selecting fixed assets, raising finance for purchases, depreciation.

        Leasing/contract hire/rental, sale and lease back, hire purchase, credit agreements, maintenance.

        Investment businesses, range of activities, duties and responsibilities of investment managers.

        The asset management industry, organisation: dealing, cash management, the back office.

        Modern portfolio theory; economic data, growth, interest rates. Compliance, systems, data requirements.

        Equities, bonds and the money market, derivatives, property; dividends and equity returns.

        Fund management: equity, fixed interest, currencies.  Performance returns, reporting and analysis.

        Investment accounting, making settlements. Quantitative analysis.  Security and market analysis.




Human Resource (HR) and personnel management covers a wide and varied range of activities, affecting all aspects of an organisation and of course all of its personnel; men and women who are trained and knowledgeable in these matters will always be in demand and find employment and good positions in organisations.  Additionally, anybody looking for promotion, or who has responsibility for work colleagues, or who is a manager of any kind, needs to have effective knowledge of how to handle personnel proficiently - and this Program provides that too.

This Program introduces, describes and explains the roles, activities and responsibilities of the human resource and personnel management function, its staff, officers and managers.  It deals with the many different areas which come under the remit of HR/personnel management, and provides training on the important duties that HR/personnel management managers and staff must perform (including in industrial relations).  The importance of modern, effective, trained HR/personnel managers, employees and departments has never been more important because they have the potential to positively affect the operations of an enterprise, avoid poor performance or low output by the workforce, reduce industrial action, and create a work environment which benefits both employees and the organization for which they work.


        Module 1 - HR/Personnel Policy, Strategy and Management

        Module 2 - Functions of Management, Organization and Structure

        Module 3 - Communication in Organizations 

        Module 4 - Manpower Planning, Job Analysis and Job Descriptions, Work Groups

        Module 5 - Recruitment and Selection of Personnel

        Module 6 - Induction, Training and Employee Development

        Module 7 - Health and Safety, Security and Welfare

        Module 8 - Motivation, Employee Counselling, Resignations and Retirement

        Module 9 - Industrial Relations (1)

        Module 10 - Industrial Relations (2)

        Module 11 - Remuneration and Benefits

        Module 12 - Personnel Records and Statistics



This Program teaches employers, management and appointed personnel how to organize and put in place a safe work environment and to ensure the health, safety and security of personnel and others in the workplace.  The Program teaches and explains how to conduct risk assessments and to identify hazards and risks, and explains many types and categories of risks in many workplaces including construction sites, schools, restaurants, hotels, factories and stores - and how to overcome them.  Implementing the knowledge taught and advice given in this Program will help avoid accidents which can affect employees and employers and help avoid injury, reduced output, accident investigation and legal costs.  The Program deals with accident-prevention actions, risk assessment and implementation of health and safety rules and measures.

This Program will assist in developing a successful career in health & safety management (including occupational health and safety) and many related Human Resource (HR), and general supervisory and managerial positions.  Health and safety training is vital for a huge range of employment positions and careers, including office-based, production/manufacturing/construction, catering and others - in fact, any involving people; and it is also essential knowledge for all managers, directors and business people responsible for staff and employees.  Increasingly, companies are looking for specialist health and safety professionals, and this Program will provide the training and understanding needed to allow those who study it to apply for and efficiently carry out such posts and responsibilities. 


        Managing workplace health & safety; legal matters, responsibilities; hazards, risk assessment, policy.

        Workplace safety, buildings, environs, layout, housekeeping, equipment.

        Accident prevention, avoiding trips and falls.

        Fire safety: ignition sources, fuel, oxygen, combustible materials.

        Fire risk assessment, eliminating fire hazards, precautions, fire extinguishers.

        Working at height, ladders, mobile platforms, roof work.

        Building & construction sites, traffic, waste.

        Equipment: training, hazards and dangers, safety guards, controls.

        Equipment positioning and layout, space, maintenance, tools, gas, pressure.

        Transport, route planning, movement of vehicles, planning aisles.

        Materials handling equipment, systems, training, supervising operators.

        Electricity, current, circuits, conductors, insulators, power, hazards.

        Noise, vibrations, risks, potential damages, machinery and precautions, controlling noise.

        Hazardous and explosive substances, storage of dangerous substances.

        Radiation: risks and exposure, machines with radioactivity risks.

        Occupational skin diseases, causes, prevention

        Catering, kitchens, food preparation, cleaning and hygiene.

        Potential injuries in kitchens, dermatitis worries, premises management, H & S officers.

        Psychological health, stress, job design, counselling.

        HR policy, harassment, bullying and equal opportunity.

        Educational establishments, hazards, injuries, school grounds, supervisors, staff, fire, medical facilities, stairs.

        Health protection, first aid, accident control; liability insurance.

        VDUs, protective equipment, training.




Understanding the principles of human behaviour in organisations is part of being a fully effective manager. These principles apply to all areas of an organisation and to the direction of teams; they apply to managers and supervisors in all sectors of industry, commerce and public service.  The effects on people’s behaviour of policies, rules and decisions need to be understood by supervisors, junior, middle and senior management and directors and business owners.  Organisational performance is reduced if insufficient attention is given to the people which comprise its human resource, so the Program covers human behaviour in organisations and the factors that affect people and their work.  It provides a good understanding of organisations and is for anyone pursuing a career and professional development in a managerial role.

This Program covers the effects of policies, instructions, leadership, motivation, technological and social changes, all of which needs to be understood by managers and decision-makers so they can make the right choices and successfully manage people and enterprises. It advances professionalism and career development in all areas of management, making it very valuable for career development and advancement in any one or more of these career areas.


        Definitions of organisational behaviour and the benefits of its study.

        Organisations and the environment; organisational goals, aims, objectives.

        Decisions and decision-making in organisations; systems in organisations.

        People’s perceptions: how and why they interpret events and actions.

        Perceptions, stereotypes and the halo effect.

        Exploring anthropology and sociology.

        Attitudes, values, beliefs, socialization, learning and development.

        Motivation at work and motivational theories; features, requirements, processes, theories.

        Job design, frustration at work, stress, effects on performance.

        Personality, traits, qualities and team roles; role behaviour and activities.

        Selection, testing and assessment in teams.

        Communication: one-way, two-way, vertical, horizontal.

        Channels, barriers and blockages to communication; agendas, assertiveness.

        Influence at work, authority and its misuse.

        Sources of power, types of working relationship; control mechanisms, the delegation of authority.

        Leadership and management; functions, styles, factors, traits and complexities.

        Leadership models and theories.

        Teams and groups: their purposes; creation, development and behaviour of groups; high-performance teams.

        Conflict: sources and symptoms, conflict resolution and conflict management.

        Realpolitik and patronage, favoritism and bullying, trust and confidence.

        Organisational health and well-being.

        Ethics, responsibility and obligations in relationships; employees, customers and stakeholders.

        External and internal pressures, and influences of culture; cultural types and influences.

        Technology: size and scale of production, expertise, alienation, technological developments.

        Organisation structures and design, centralization and decentralization.

        Mechanistic and organic structures, bureaucracy.

        Change management: the drivers and factors of change, the processes and management of change.


STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                                

This Program is important for anybody wishing to understand organisations and the people within them, to improve efficiency, output and managerial ability.  It will enable you to become a better manager, leader, executive and manager of people and the human resources of organisations, and therefore will drive your career success onwards.

It is important for managers to understand the people-organisation relationship, and the social systems that exist and develop in organisations.  With that knowledge they can decide upon and implement actions and control which benefit both the employees and the organisation to the maximum.  Awareness and management of the organisational culture and climate, and an understanding of the factors affecting employee’s commitment lead to both managerial and organisational development and effectiveness, and reflect positively on the organisation’s attitude and ability to deal with change.

Through an understanding of the processes and relationships in work organisations, of management, and the behaviour of people at work, managers will be able to make the best use of people as valuable resources to the mutual benefit of all organisational stakeholders, and learn how to use their own power, authority, skills and leadership abilities to best effect.


·         Understanding individuality and the differences of those at work in organisations

·         The changing nature and scope of managing individuals at work

·         Personality and attitudes, theoretical approaches to individuality and individuals

·         Ability, culture, gender, change, the socialization process

·         Orientations and motivations towards work, working practices

·         The meaning and nature of learning

·         The management of learning, knowledge management, learning organisations

·         Learning theories, styles and models, creativity, facilitating learning, study skills

·         Designing and evaluating development programmes

·         The process of perception, meaning and individuals, internal factors, external factors, stimuli

·         Transactional analysis, judgement, attribution theory, other theories

·         Motivation, needs and expectations at work, theories of motivation

·         Frustration-induced behaviour

·         Implications for managers of these theories

·         Developing reward strategies to motivate and reward workers

·         Managing work groups and teams

·         The types and importance of groups and teams, and their influences on behaviour and work

·         Differences between groups and teams, and their formation

·         Group cohesiveness, performance, development and maturity, and organisational factors

·         Group theories and an investigation of groups and teams

·         Roles, role relationships, role conflict and role stress

·         Group processes and behaviour, interactions, factors of successful teams

·         Belbin’s team-roles

·         Communication

·         Analysis of behaviour in groups and behavioural theories

·         Frameworks of behavioural analysis, group performance and effectiveness

·         Organisational control and management power

·         Management control systems, characteristics of an effective control system

·         Strategies of control in organisations

·         Power, compliance and management control

·         The balance between order and flexibility

·         Theories and realities of power and the use of power

·         Motivation to improve performance

·         Development in organisations, organisation development

·         Organisational culture, the cultural web

·         Conflict management, sources of conflict, strategies for managing conflict

·         The nature and management of organisational change, human and social factors relating to change

·         Management development

·         The importance of effective management and models of management development

·         CPD, management education, training and development

·         Organisational improvement and effectiveness, the learning organisation

·         Total Quality Management (TQM), business process re-engineering (BPR), EFQM excellence model

·         Organisation audit , benchmarking

·         Building organisational competence



This Program explains what employee and organization development means and teaches how to become an expert in managing the training and development of personnel; such a trained expert is vital to oversee the development of staff, employees and other personnel so that they contribute to the successful, effective and profitable performance of the organization.  The Program covers training needs analysis, core training and development requirements, various training and development methods; and how to undertake and manage the activities involved in designing, monitoring and evaluating the development activities taking place in an organization.  The Program also shows how to prepare suitable development policies, and covers leadership, motivation and the effects of change.

Being able to expertly manage the development and training of employees - and of the organization as a whole - and to do so in an efficient, cost-effective and planned manner is a great skill and talent which requires understanding and training.  This Program provides that training and knowledge, which gives the opportunity for career development and good jobs in all types of organisations - because all organisations revolve around their manpower and human resources - staff, employees and managers - of all levels.


        Employee development - the context, and the need for development.

        Costs and charges involved in employee development activities.

        Undertaking a cost-benefit analysis of different employee development factors.

        Learning: how people learn and their different learning styles, factors in successful learning.

        Training needs analysis; determining the key priorities of training.

        Undertaking performance appraisal and assessment, strategic approaches to training.

        Organisational and managerial performance; the contribution of groups to organisation success.

        Core training programmes and universal programmes.

        Matters concerning quality and delivery of training; assessing feedback from course participants.

        On-the-job and off-the-job training;

        Benefits of employee multi-skilling; benefits of empowerment and flexibility.

        Designing training programmes, setting aims and objectives.

        Consultation on training and specifying the target groups for training.

        Managing and organizing the monitoring, review and evaluation of development programmes.

        Testing, reports, and factors affecting training.

        Training and development equipment and resources, the quality of the learning environment.

        Mentoring, coaching and counselling; the relationships involved, qualities needed for success.

        Development strategies, raising organisational expectations.

        Improving the training and development environment.

        Organisational training functions; strategy and the training function; roles, functions and resources.

        Organisational development; achieving positive attitudes, values and beliefs.

        The roles of the development manager; creating a learning, proactive organisation.

        Comparing the intended and actual outputs of training.

        Continuous professional and occupational development and demands.

        Management development; considering qualifications and expertise, managing job enhancement.

        Self-development, succession management and organisational transformation.

        Ethics; relationships with employees, staff and customers; dealing with conflict.

        Government training and development policy; external consultants and specialists.

        Social factors and strategic approaches; social and cross-cultural factors in training.

        Dealing with change and uncertainty, barriers to change and overcoming them.



This Program provides an excellent foundation for a successful career in purchasing, resourcing, buying, quality management and related career areas.  Whether entering the purchasing and supply field for the first time, looking for promotion, or needing to achieve managerial skills, this Program is designed to provide all of the knowledge and understanding needed to achieve these goals.

Whether an enterprise is involved in manufacturing, distribution or providing a service, the function of purchasing or 'buying' is a job for trained professionals.  Proficient purchasing can greatly increase the efficiency, competitiveness and profitability of a business; but unwise buying can seriously damage its operations, reputation and profits.  This very practical Program covers the responsibilities and duties of professional buyers, and looks at the importance of policy, quality, supplier relationships and negotiations, and of personnel and planning issues in purchasing management.


        Defining and setting purchasing objectives and resourcing strategy.

        Purchasing policy formulation and its implementation, evaluation and control; the strategic options.

        Logistics and purchasing; just-in-time manufacture and buying processes; distribution channels.

        Purchasing organisations: centralization and decentralization of the function.

        The place of purchasing in the management hierarchy.

        Job structures, job analysis and job specifications for purchasing staff and the department.

        Administration and co-ordination of the purchasing and resourcing role, purchasing performance.

        The concept and role of total quality management, planning, creating and supporting partnerships.

        Purchasing procedures, documentation, records, control systems.

        Information technology and its effects on purchasing and supply, database facilities, using statistics.

        Master production schedules, their uses and control.

        Supplier appraisal, the aims, how appraisal and investigations are undertaken, deciding on suitable suppliers.

        Human resource management in the supply chain: planning, recruitment, training and development, supervision, control.

        Management styles and leadership, motivation, employee relations, discipline, task/relationship.

        Sourcing; matching supply with demand and production needs, materials requirement planning.

        Specifying and assuring quality of supplies; quality control and standards; controlling prices, costs and quality.

        New and potential suppliers, the stages in negotiations, bargaining, win-win outcomes.

        Tendering, forecasting, costing in resourcing, the processes and techniques.

        Buying power and relationships with long-term suppliers, purchasing research, ethical considerations.  



All organisations, national and international, local and regional, need to have their stocks and inventory well managed, cared for and efficiently organized.  All company owners and executives know that their stores and inventory can represent a high proportion of the organisation’s assets and that without good inventory management the organization will suffer.  Therefore somebody with the training, skills and knowledge to manage inventory professionally - as provided by this Program - will be able to secure a good job and become a valuable member of the organisation.


        The stores function in an enterprise and its main activities.

        The need for efficient management of stores.

        The principles of management: recruiting, training, controlling, motivating stores personnel.

        Attributes and abilities looked for in stores/inventory staff.

        Health and safety, and accident prevention in stores, stockyards and warehouses.

        Staff and managerial responsibilities for safety; protective clothing, safety equipment.

        Storehouse buildings: factors regarding their location, design and layout.

        Considerations regarding floors, entrances and exits, and sub-stores.

        Planning in stores and stockyards, heating, ensuring efficiency of movement, stores maintenance.

        Stockyards: materials, location, design, layout, through flow, protection of stored items.

        Manual and powered stores equipment, materials handling, training of staff.

        Storage, measuring and general stores equipment.

        Facilitating orders and movement of stocks out of the stores.

        Order picking, packaging, avoiding damages, the use of pallets and racks.

        Protection of stock against loss and damage, causes of spoilage, how to overcome these problems.

        Storehouse and stockyard security, control over keys, prevention of theft and pilfering.

        Fire prevention, fire drills and fire-fighting equipment.

        Ordering stock items, documentation and planning.

        Stock items, inventory identification, codes, creating and understanding coding systems.

        Stock records: their contents and uses, importance of accuracy.

        Statistics and reports; the role and management of the stores office.

        Procedures for stock receipts and issues, coordination with other departments; packing, dispatch.

        Setting stock levels, reorder levels, factors in levels set; costs, ABC, EOQ, forecasting.

        Stocktaking: reasons and purposes, procedures, spot checks, stock valuation, inspections.

        Obsolete and obsolescent stock, disposal of unwanted goods.

        Data and documentation, data safety, computer systems and backups.



The course is ideal for all personnel - of all levels up to and including managers and executives - who are involved in any way with logistics, materials management, supply, or customer service.  Whether you are already employed in this field, whether your aim is to gain promotion, or whether you are looking to enter this wide and important career area, this is a Program to increase the range of successful employment opportunities and successful careers which can be achieved.  Furthermore, it allows access to such a wide range of careers which can be general, or which allows specialization in one or more of the many topics covered by this Program.

The Program focuses on planning, organising and controlling Logistics, Materials & Supply Chain Management activities - key elements for successful management in any enterprise - and it covers strategic planning and decision-making as an important part of the management process.  The Program is ideal for managers and personnel of all levels who are involved in logistics activities or in ensuring that products and services are made available to customers (or clients or intended recipients) at the time and place, and in the condition and form desired, in an efficient, profitable and cost-effective way.  It also includes special and unique sections on Reverse Logistics, and on Humanitarian, Aid & Disaster Relief Logistics.


        Module 1: Background to logistics and supply chains, value and value chains.

        Module 2: Logistics, supply chain and customer service strategy.

        Module 3: The marketing and logistics relationship and interface.      

        Module 4: Products and logistics factors.

        Module 5: Sourcing and procurement, suppliers and purchasing.

        Module 6: Receipts, inbound logistics, warehousing.

        Module 7: Stock/inventory control, and order processing.

        Module 8: Transportation methods, transport management.

        Module 9: Operations management and production in supply chains.

        Module 10: Lean logistics and supply chain management, and agile supply chains

        Module 11: Distribution and distribution centres, and reverse logistics.

        Module 12: Logistics and project management; humanitarian and disaster/emergency management.




Effective supply chain management is essential for business growth, prosperity and profits, and the principles apply to all organisations; therefore trained supply chain personnel are in high demand so this is a wise career choice. It is helpful for anyone looking for careers in, or aiming for advancement in logistics and supply.


        Forecasting supply chain requirements, methods and techniques of forecasting.

        Problems and uncertainties of predicting supply needs, collaborative forecasting.

        Ensuring flexibility and quick response in supply chain management.

        Variations in demand, controlling lead times, dealing with prices and costs.

        Monitoring, noting and assessing trends.

        Inventory control and policy decisions, deciding upon inventory location points.

        Managing the flows of goods and services.

        Inventory appraisal and monitoring, categories and types of inventory.

        The objectives of holding inventory, pull and push inventory systems.

        Materials Resource Planning (MRP).

        Pipeline inventories, aggregate control of inventories, supply-driven inventory control, virtual inventories.

        Purchasing and supply scheduling, the decisions involved, storage and handling systems, costs.

        Mathematical models relating to purchasing, supply and scheduling.

        Facility and site selection - the factors involved.

        Planning, design and operational needs of sites and warehouses.

        Materials handling systems, planning and designing them.

        Location strategy and decisions, single and multiple facilities location.

        Factories, dynamic warehouse location, design and control of channels.

        Network planning and product flows: data sources and checklists.

        Logistics research, tools for analysis in network planning.

        Facility costs and their capacity; the configuration of networks.

        Benchmarking and quality, monitoring efficiency.

        Supply chain organisation and control: the differing choices.

        Orientation and positioning of the supply chain.

        Inter-functional and inter-organisational management, and integrated planning.

        The control process; managing, developing and understanding the control framework.

        Data measurement and analysis relating to the supply chain.


STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                                

This Program is ideal for men and women of all ages and experience who are already employed in hotel, hospitality or related jobs, and who are aiming to gain promotions or new jobs within the hotel industry. It will also assist men and women who are looking to enter this important career area. By covering a wide range of operational and managerial aspects of hotels it also provides important knowledge and understanding for advancement to managerial roles. The course also allows focus on a range of career opportunities both within and outside of hotels, as it covers communications, human resource, financial aspects and other areas; so becoming a specialist in a particular area of hotel management is also possible too. All countries, regions, towns, cities have hotels and hospitality businesses in place, so there are always career opportunities for trained individuals in this industry.


·         Module 1 - Functions and Types of Hotels

·         Module 2 - Hotel Products and Markets

·         Module 3 - Hotel Organisation, Management and Staff

·         Module 4 - The Hotel Reception: the Front Office

·         Module 5 - The Hotel Reception: other Responsibilities

·         Module 6 - Hotel Bedrooms and Bathrooms

·         Module 7 - Hotel Housekeeping

·         Module 8 - Hotel Catering 1

·         Module 9 - Hotel Catering 2

·         Module 10 - Hotel Catering 3

·         Module 11 – Beverages

·         Module 12 - Hotel Businesses



STUDY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                                

This Program provides important knowledge and a worthwhile qualification for career development and success in a wide range of tourism and travel related positions, for all ranges of employees, staff, business owners and managers.  This Program produces trained persons who are ready to be employed to work in tourism, to market and sell tourism and travel products, and to make decisions which can affect travel numbers and the volumes of tourists who visit a country.   By making a career in the industry - such as tourism and travel - and by undertaking training such as is provided in this Program, you will become a true professional in the field (with a CIC Diploma to prove it!) and so the description is a very accurate one, which you will be proud of.


·         Definitions of tourism, the wide range of motivations for travel.

·         The types of visitors and travelers, types of tour organisations.

·         The tourism industry: its structure, components and organisation; tourism products and services.

·         Tourist destinations, attractions, amenities and facilities; accessibility to tourism destinations.

·         The national and international importance of tourism, its effects on the balance of trade.

·         Economic and social consequences of tourism, employment opportunities, effects on culture.

·         Income received from tourism, the income multiplier, invisible exports.

·         Factors to consider in developing tourism.

·         Investment in tourism, sources of finance - financial and other factors.

·         Reasons for government involvement in tourism development, and potential government actions: tax and customs duties policies.

·         Measurement of tourism, tourism statistics, SWOT analysis and information provided.

·         More on development - the tourism framework: people, markets, destinations, routes.

·         The tourism and resorts life cycle; infrastructure and superstructure.

·         Structure and organisation of the tourism industry.

·         Channels of distribution for products, carriers, amenity and attraction providers, accommodation establishments.

·         Wholesalers and retailers of tourism products.

·         Tourism and travel markets: leisure and activity holidays, business travel.

·         Types of tours, sightseeing, cruising and cultural tours.

·         VFR travel, cultural, educational, health travel - the increasing range available.

·         Inclusive and IT tours.

·         Tourism operators: mass market, specialist, domestic, others; economics of tour operations, supplements and surcharges.

·         Transport, carriers: air, rail, road, sea, inland.

·         Accommodation and catering; the range, types and standards of accommodation.

·         Rating and categorization of hotels and other accommodation units.

·         Consumer demands and changes in tastes, seasonality, pricing strategies and other issues.

·         State promotion of tourism, national, regional and local tourist organisations.

·         The roles of tour operators/travel agents and tourist information offices.

·         Reservations systems, booking forms, itineraries, fares, tickets.  Inclusive and package tours.

·         Public and private tourism marketing; communications, the promotional mix, market research, sales planning and forecasting.

·         Advertising and sales promotions campaigns, special offers and merchandising, displays.

·         Tour brochures: types, sizes, importance, design and layout.

·         Websites: internet marketing, comparison websites, in-line bookings and payments.

·         Social media and viral marketing, marketing opportunities on-line.

·         A tourism and travel promotional campaign, from planning and review, through to strategy, marketing, advertising, literature, information, website and other promotions, media relations.



This Program provides the route to career success in a wide range of sales and marketing posts, as well as providing essential skills and knowledgeable for business people, entrepreneurs, managers and directors.  Whether involved in specific elements of sales or selling, dealing with customers, marketing or research, this Program provides the path to becoming an effective and valuable sales and marketing professional.

Marketing is often viewed as the most important function of any organisation; without effective marketing activities an organisation will be out of touch with customer needs, market situations and developments; and customers will not know about or have access to the products and services of the business.  Along with the top-class selling ability required for success, knowledge is needed about markets, market research, distribution channels, marketing strategies, advertising, publicity, public relations, pricing strategies and more. Sales/marketing managers must also manage staff: recruit, motivate, guide, train and control them, and plan and organize their activities.  This practical Program provides training on the wide-ranging duties of sales and marketing managers in the highly competitive world of business.


·         The principles of selling and salesmanship.

        Internal sales personnel and commercial travelling salespeople.

        The methods of selling: creating interest, giving demonstrations, making sales transactions.

        Types and categories of consumers, commercial and corporate buyers.

        Making ongoing sales, building customer relationships, generating and following up sales leads.

        The principles of management: recruiting, training, remunerating, controlling and motivating sales personnel.

        Building effective sales teams, setting and monitoring sales targets, deciding upon sales areas.

        The organisation and control of sales teams, and the special issues regarding travelling salesmen.

        Market research: consumer research, market surveys, advertising research.

        The importance of research, and the activities involved.

        Reasons for undertaking and the types of test marketing.

        Techniques and importance of sales forecasting.

        Planning, budgeting, budgetary control in sales and marketing, variances and their implications.

        Segmentation of markets, the role of brands, psychology in sales and marketing.

        Channels of distribution; which to choose, advantages and disadvantages; wholesale, retail, franchise.

        Credit and setting terms, credit limits, control over credit customers.

        The types and purposes of different discounts allowed: trade, quantity, cash, others.

        Sales forecasting and planning in connection with the product life cycle (PLC).

        Pricing strategies, factors in setting prices, the objectives of pricing.

        Direct and indirect advertising and publicity.

        Media and their importance, sales promotion, roles and management of public relations.

        Sales letters & literature, direct marketing.

        The Internet as a marketing and sales tool; website design, social media.

        The sales office, records, graphs, statistics, collection and analysis of data, computerised sales data.

        Export selling, international marketing, customs duties.

        Researching overseas markets, expansion of markets and the customer-base.



The Program is a good route to higher studies including in general management, business and administration, and in sales, marketing, global marketing and communications, media studies and related areas.

 The course is ideal for sales personnel, marketers, advertising and PR personnel and business people who are already employed in this field, and also for men and women looking to enter this interesting career area or set up their own businesses.  It is also a course for men and women wishing to gain promotion, in those career areas, or simply looking to increase managerial ability and skills in advertising and public relations.  All managers, entrepreneurs, business people and executives can benefit greatly from a good understanding of these twin areas and how to employ them best to gain success and good returns for their organisations. The range of career opportunities for skilled and trained advertising and PR personnel is wide and includes include sales, marketing, global marketing and communications, media studies, and more. The knowledge and understanding, techniques and approaches, gained from this informative and interesting Program will benefit anyone looking to gain a successful career in advertising, PR and the wider media, marketing and sales promotion environment.


        Advertising, advertisers and advertisements; the aims, features and types of advertising.

        The importance of advertising to producers, vendors, consumers and the media.

        Types of advertisers: individuals, business, others. 

        Markets, marketing, communication, media representatives.

        Advertising media: print, broadcast, direct-mail, transit, cinema, radio, television.

        Website design & production.

        Speciality and point of sale advertising.

        Features of media, and choosing the best options.

        Advertising agencies: their functions, organisation, staff, departments.

        Advertising agencies: the work performed in them; advertising executives and their duties.

        Managing advertising and PR agencies: account groups, payments, revenues, fees.

        Creating print, radio and television advertisements.

        The advertising copy and the illustrated advertising message.

        Copywriting - the process and considerations, style and effectiveness.

        The principles and considerations of design and layout.

        Creating and preparing radio and television advertisements; the types, the planning, the elements, the production.

        Direct mail advertising; the types, aims and components.

        Impact, persuasion and effective design of literature.

        Public relations theory and practice: objectives, research, programmes, techniques.

        Communication, goodwill and public opinion.

        PR compared to advertising and sales promotions; PR and media management.

        PR provision - internal PR departments, external PR consultancies, the advantages and management of both types.

        The qualities needed of PR managers and staff; the main PR activities.

        PR budgets, client accounts and account management, costs and billing clients.

        PR programmes and advertising campaigns; analysing the situation and attitudes, deciding on priorities and the target audience, selecting the media and techniques to use, measuring the results.

        Sales promotion - aims, features, methods, control and the promotional mix.

        Promotions and their relation to advertising, and the role of personal selling.

        Introducing new products; convincing consumers and commercial buyers.

        The planning and operation of a full promotional campaign; strategy, targets, marketing activities, the PR angle.

        Measuring PR and advertising effectiveness; pre- and post- advertising and PR measurements, techniques.

        Social media, internet and web adverts and design, their development and effects.



Modern media have powerful influences and effects on all aspects of contemporary lives; mass media and social media have greatly changed the way in which businesses, governments and private individuals communicate with and between one another.  Understanding how media work and operate - and how best to make effective use of them - is essential for the success and prosperity of businesses, because rapid and effective communication with prospective and existing customers and clients - nationally and/or internationally - is paramount in overcoming competition.  This is a very topical and “modern age” Program, with many important practical applications for people running or working in businesses of all types and sizes.


        Media professionals and the “politics” of representation.

        Media stars, personalities and celebrities.

        Dominant practices and forms of reality media: reality, truth, freedom, ethics, responsibilities.

        Media businesses in the digital age.

        Methods and techniques of mass communication.

        Regulation and public policy.

        The impact of social media and global media; global media production.

        Audiences: producing audiences, the range of activities of media professionals.

        Propaganda and manipulation of audiences, media effects and moral panics, from ‘effects’ to influence.

        Identifying audience activity; from ‘effects’ to uses and gratifications, media, context and meaning.

        Researching media audiences, ethics and audience research.

        Branding, identity and consumption.

        Media and power, conceptualization, ideology; discourse, power in communication, global news.

        Mass society, mass media and social change; theories of mass society, who the “masses” are.

        Making media: writing, still images, web design, moving images, animation, game design, audio production.

        Imagining, planning, telling, imaging, designing, editing, theorising; documentaries.

        The ‘consumer society’, history of consumerism and advertising; cultures of consumerism.

        National, international & global marketing.

        Advertising in the digital age; the future of advertising and marketing.




The field of event management is growing rapidly, covering key aspects of project management, and including skills and ability important in a very wide range of business, commercial, private and public fields, including for tourism, trade, social, company events and more; such skills are looked for by employers in employees destined for successful careers in events management, or in other fields such as management, project management, public relations and many more.  The Program is ideal for people who are already employed in an events management role, or who wish to enter this important career area, or who wish to open an events management business, or who have events to manage.


The Event Project:

        The modern events industry; categories, sizes and scopes of events.

        Events as projects, adapting project management techniques.

        Event stakeholders.

        Event creation, the “five Ws”, feasibility, the “WOW factor”, themes.

Event Personnel:

        The event manager: duties and responsibilities, skills, abilities and expertise needed. 

        Event teams: make-up and personnel, creative teams. 

        Managing diverse groups and short-term teams.

        Interpersonal communication skills, decision making skill, time management.

Event Planning:

        The event concept and purpose, vision and mission statements.

        Event strategy, setting SMART goals, SWOT analysis. 

        Lead time, event dates, influencing factors, venue considerations. 

        Event action plans, an event business plan, event documentation.

 Event Budgets & Finance:

        Financial forecasts and projections, developing the budget, budgetary control. 

        Sources of income: entry and entrance fees, sponsorship, merchandise sales, concessions.  

        Typical event expenditure items. 

        Financial planning, accounting and control, final accounts.

 Corporate Sponsorship:

          What sponsorship involves, benefits sponsors seek. 

        Identifying, targeting approaching potential sponsors.

        Sponsorship packages: typical components, pricing considerations, costs involved. 

        Sponsorship proposals, documentation, agreements or contracts; on-going relations with sponsors.

Event Venues:

        Basic and critical factors in venue selection and suitability: location, dimensions, environment, facilities, dates, availability.

        Prices and terms, rental agreements, conditions, booking. 

        Site visits, non-traditional venues.

        Food and beverages at events, organising supplies, services, equipment, furniture.

 Event Program & Schedule:

        Main, core, secondary, support and ancillary activities. 

        Timing and sequencing of event activities, Gantt charts, multiple and concurrent activities. 

        Contingency plans.

        Production of printed programmes.

 Legal Issues & Insurance for Events:

        Responsibilities under the law, copyright, licenses and permits, sanctioning, performing rights, disability issues. 

        Features of legally binding contracts and agreements.

        Quotations for supplies of goods and services, purchase orders.

        Insurance cover, claims, indemnity.

 Logistics & Production:

        Assessing resources needed; logistics to ensure flows of resources, materials, people, access, egress.

        Safe placement of equipment & services, sanitary facilities.

        Information, safety, welfare signage, emergencies, site/venue maps. 

        Litter and waste management. 

 Event Health & Safety:

        Duty of care, risk assessments, risk control, accident prevention. 

        Crowd control, hazards presented by crowds, queue management, uses of barriers and fencing. 

        Incident and emergency planning & procedures, safe evacuation, shows stops. 

        Transport and electricity hazards. 

 Marketing & Promotion:

        Creating public awareness of an event, promotional campaigns. 

        Market research and strategy, SMART marketing objectives, the marketing mix. 

        Marketing tools: printed materials, media advertising, online adverts, websites, viral marketing. 

        Post-event evaluation and reports, audience research.

 Starting and Building Events Businesses:

        Reasons for starting events businesses, finding a niche, deciding types of events to focus on, and the right business unit. 

        The business plan and capital, working from home. 

        Securing clients, social media, websites, referrals, goodwill. 

        Fees structures, accounting, insurance.